Sukri Palutturi, SKM, M.Kes.
Student of MSc.PH & leads., Griffith University, Queensland, Australia
Implementation of management theory in organisations plays an important role to achieve the organisational goals effectively and efficiently (Robbins, Bergman, Stagg, and Coulter, 2006). One important thing in the organisations is how to identify the Organisational Behaviour. In this paper, Organisational Behaviour is focused on understanding the behaviour of people working within the organisations. Therefore, Organisational Behaviour is understood as application of knowledge about how individuals, groups and structure act in organisations (Robbins, Judge, Millet, and Waters-Marsh, 2008). This interprets people-organisation relationship in terms of the whole person, group, organisation and social system for the purpose is to build better relationship by achieving human, organisational, and social objectives. To implement management functions, here leadership is needed to influence other people in making decision.
As Organisational Behaviour encompasses a wide range of topics such as human behaviour, change, leadership, teams, social systems, work life, etc., this paper will focus on the elements of Organisational Behaviour relating to the implementation of leadership and modern management theory in the Health Policy and Administration Department, School of Public Health, Hasanuddin University.
B. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF ORGANISATION
Name of this organisation is Health Policy and Administration Department, School of Public Health, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia. Structurally, this organisation is the smallest part of Hasanuddin University organisation having role in the academic field, research and public services.
The educational objectives are to master the basic science professionally in order to be able to think, behave and act as scientists and professional people and think comprehensively in solving public health problems with pressing of preventive and promotive approaches than curative and rehabilitative.
This organisation has seven lecturers, two staff and 110 students among 72 lecturers, 30 staff, 1,382 students (Profile of School of Public Health, Hasanuddin University, 2008). There are two customer groups: internal customers and external customers. The Internal customers include lecturers and staff whereas the external customers are students, students’ parents and stakeholders.
C. ELEMENTS OF THE ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR
An organisation has to have philosophy, values, vision and goals. These will drive an organisational culture which is formed of the formal and informal organisation, and the social environment. Organisational culture determines the types of leadership, communications, and group dynamics within the organisations. The final outcomes are performance, individual satisfaction, and personal growth and development.
There are three leadership styles: autocratic, democratic and laissez-faire (Tyson, 1998). In this organisation, the leadership style which tends to be applied is democratic and laissez-faire style but this depends on the problem. Then, communication created is two ways communications so almost all decisions are taken by all staff. Additionally, the final outcomes of the organisation are performance measured by such as attendance in the class, participation level in the regular meeting.
D. MODERN MANAGEMENT THEORY
In modern management theory, there are several management functions, namely planning, organizing, leading and controlling.
There are several types of plans; strategic plans and operational plans. Strategic plans aim to formulate the goals and to determine policies of organisation. This tends to cover a longer time of organisation and it is usually for school or faculty level whereas to implement the activities to achieve the organisational goals, that is called operational plans. It is usually done at department levels. Planning can be divided into term plans; long-term plans and short-term plans. Long-term plans are usually for planning of three years whereas short-term plans are usually for planning of one year or less (Robbins, Bergman, Stagg, and Coulter, 2006; Davidson and Griffin, 2006). The leadership style in this function is democratic style. Leader tends to encourage all staff to be involved in planning.
One of the purposes which want to be achieved in this function is to assign tasks and responsibilities associated with individual jobs (Robbins, Bergman, Stagg, and Coulter, 2006). As this organisation is the smallest organisation in this school, its organisational structure is simpler than others. This only consists of leader, secretary, staff and lecturers. Leader performs two functions: as a lecturer and spokesman in the organisation. Secretary also performs two functions: as a lecturer and a person helping academic needs. While, other lecturers are just giving lecture, supervising, guiding students. In this function, leadership skill tending to be applied is democratic skill.
To make effective decision at least there are two components which have to be created in an organisation: motivation, reward and communication.
The most well-known theory of motivation is Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy oh needs (Robbins, Bergman, Stagg, and Coulter, 2006). There are five levels of human needs: psychological needs; safety needs; social needs; esteem needs and self- actualization needs. Staff’s needs differ from others.
Other things are reward and communication. Giving reward to the staff is as important as punishment. Reward is not only related to money and incentive but also opportunity to self-development. In the government organisation, reward system is easier to be applied than punishment system. Therefore, almost there is no difference between staff who has high performance and low one. Meanwhile, effective communication is also important for leaders. According to Miller (1996) as cited from Aditama (2002), one of the ways to create effective leader is listening. Leaders do not only have ability for speaking and talking but also listening.
Controlling is needed in an organisation because this is the final cycle in the management functions. It also is needed because managers delegate authority to other staff and to protect the organisation (Robbins, Bergman, Stagg, and Coulter, 2006). There are four ways to control the staff and organisations; personal observations, statistical reports, oral reports and written reports. Among these four ways, statistical reports are one of the ways that is often done by a leader in this organisation by regular meeting. In this function, leader tends to apply laissez-faire style. Leader gives low control to the staff and leader only gives direction to the staff if requested.
Among management or leadership style as mentioned at previous explanation, the best suit to perform management function in this organisation is democratic style although this approach will differ between one function and others.
The final outcomes of organisations are performance, individual satisfaction, and personal growth and development. While, organisational culture determines the types of leadership, communications, and group dynamics within the organisations. Leadership style which tends to be applied in this organisation among management functions is democratic and laissez-faire style. To increase organisational performance, effective controlling is needed.
Aditama, T. Y. (2002). Management of Hospital Administration. Jakarta, Indonesia: University of Indonesia Press.
Davidson, P., & Griffin, R. W. (2006). Management (3rd). Queensland: Wiley.
Profile of School of Public Health. (2008). Makassar, Indonesia: School of Public Health, Hasanuddin University.
Robbins, S., Bergman, R., Stagg, I., & Coulter, M. (2006). Management (4th ed.). New South Wales: Pearson Education Australia.
Robbins, S. P., Judge, T. A., Millet, B., & Waters-Marsh, T. (2008). Organisational behaviour (5th ed.). New South Wales: Pearson Education Australia.
Tyson, T. (1998). Working with groups (2nd ed.). Macmillian, Melbourne.